ENDNOTES

  1. Ratey, J. J., and Hagerman, E., “Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain,” Little, Brown & Company, 2014; Moore, L. et al., “Does early physical activity predict body fat change throughout childhood?,” Preventative Medicine, 37:10-17, 2003; Grissom, J., “Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement,” Journal of Exercise Physiology, 8(1): 11-25, 2005; Staurowsky, E.J. et al., “Her Life Depends On It: Sport, Physical Activity, and the Health and Well-Being of American Girls and Women,” East Meadow, NY: Women’s Sports Foundation, 2009; Jones-Palm, D.H. and Palm, J., “Physical Activity and Its Impact on Health Behavior Among Youth,” World Health Organization, 2005; Lieras, C., “Do skills and behaviors in high school matter? The contribution of noncognitive factors in explaining differences in educational attainment and earnings,” Social Science Research, 27:888-902, 2008; Stevenson, B., “Beyond the Classroom: Using Title IX to Measure the Return to High School Sports,” Review of Economics and Statistics, 92:284-301, 2010; Cawley, J. and Meyerhoefer, C., “The medical care costs of obesity: An instrumental variables approach,” Journal of Health Economics, 31(1):219-230, January 2012; Proper, K.I. et al., “Dose-response relation between physical activity and sick leave,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(2):173-178, 2006; 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2008; Olshansky, S.J. et al., “A Potential Decline in Life Expectancy in the United States in the 21st Century,” New England Journal of Medicine, 352(1):1138-1145, March 17, 2005; Fires, J., “Physical activity, the compression of morbidity, and the health of the elderly,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 89:64-68, 1996; Moore, L.L. et al., “Influence of Parents’ Physical Activity Levels on Activity Levels of Young Children,” Journal of Pediatrics, 118(2):215-219, 1991.
  2. Moore et al., “Influence of Parents’ Physical Activity Levels on Activity Levels of Young Children.”
  3. Sagas, Michael and Cunningham, George, Sport Participation Rates among Underserved American Youth, Gainesville, FL: University of Florida’s Sport Policy & Research Collaborative, 2014.
  4. Spengler, John Otto and Cohen, Jacob, Physical Literacy: A Global Environmental Scan, Washington, DC: Aspen Institute Sports & Society Program, June 2015. 
  5. Based on numbers reported by 16 states in 2013. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1995-2013 Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data, available at http://nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline/
  6. Nader, P.R. et al., “Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from ages 9 to 15 years,” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(3):295-305, 2008.
  7. Malina, Robert, “Top 10 Research Questions Related To Growth And Maturation of Relevance to Physical Activity, Performance, And Fitness,” Research Quarterly For Exercise And Sport, 85(2):157-173.
  8. “Basics about Childhood Obesity,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/basics.html.
  9. “F as in Fat: How Obesity Threatens America’s Future 2012,” Trust for America’s Health, 2012.
  10. Williams, Harriet G. et al., “Motor Skill Performance and Physical Activity in Preschool Children,” Obesity, 16:1421–1426, 2008.
  11. Lopes, V. et al., “Motor coordination as predictor of physical activity in childhood,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 21:663-669, 2001; Faigenbaum, Avery D., and Westcott, Wayne, L., ACE Youth Fitness Manual, American Council on Exercise (San Diego: American Council on Exercise, 2013); Malina, Robert, “Physical Activity and Fitness: Pathways From Childhood to Adulthood,” American Journal of Human Biology, 13:162-172, 2001.
  12. Malina, Robert, “Movement Proficiency in Childhood: Implications for Physical Activity and Youth Sport,” Kinesiologia Slovenica, 18 (3):19-34, 2012.
  13. Telama, Risto et al., “Physical Activity from Childhood to Adulthood: A 21-Year Tracking Study,” American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 28(3): 2005.
  14. For African American youth: based on statistics from the 11 states that reported data, nine of which showed that African American youth participated in less physical activity than white youth at levels that were statistically significant. For Hispanic youth: based on statistics from the 18 states that reported data, 10 of which showed that Hispanic youth participated in less physical activity than white youth at levels that were statistically significant. In all states that reported data, white youth never had lower rates of physical activity participation at statistically significant levels. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2013 Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data, available at http://nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline.
  15. Eaton, D.K. et al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2005: Surveillance Summaries,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 55(SS-5):1–108, 2006.
  16. Eaton et al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States...;” Troiano, R.P. et al., “Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer,” Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise, 40(1):181-188, 2008.
  17. Nader et al., “Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity…”
  18. Gordon-Larsen, Penny, Mcmurrah, Robert G., and Popkin, Barry M., “Adolescent Physical Activity and Inactvity Vary by Ethnicity: The National Longitudinal Study Of Adolescent Health,” The Journal of Pediatrics, 301-306, September 1999.
  19. Sabo, D. and Veliz, P., Go Out and Play: Youth Sports in America, East Meadow, NY: Women’s Sports Foundation, 2008. 
  20. Gray, Amy Gray, and Smith, Cery, “Fitness, Dietary Intake, and Body Mass Index in Urban Native American Youth,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(9):1187-1190, September 2003.
  21. Dalenius, K., Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance 2010 Report, Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012.
  22. “Why We Exist,” Center for Native American Youth at the Aspen Institute, http://www.cnay.org/WhyWeAreHere.html.
  23. Steele, C.A., “Age-related health risk behaviors of adolescents with physical disabilities,” Soz-Praventivmed, 49:132-141, 2004.
  24. Simeonsson, Rune J. et al., “Students with disabilities: a national survey of participation in school activities,” Disability and Rehabilitation, 23(2): 49-63, 2001.
  25. “Overweight and Obesity Among People with Disabilities,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, citing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2008. 
  26. Rimmer, James H. et al., “Documenting Disparities in Obesity and Disability,” Focus: Technical Brief No. 24, 2010.
  27. Rimmer, James H. et al., “Obesity and Overweight Prevalence among Adolescents with Disabilities,” Preventing Chronic Disease, 8(2): March 2011. 
  28. Data provided to the Aspen Institute by the Sports & Fitness Industry Association, which conducts an annual household survey on sport participation rates.
  29. In alphabetical order: AL, AR, DE, FL, GA, KY, MD, MS, NC, SC, TN. 2013 Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); 2013 High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data, available at http://nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline/.
  30. Haubenstricker, John and Seefeldt, Vern, “Acquisition of Motor Skills During Childhood,” in Physical Activity & Well-Being, ed. Vern Seefeldt (Reston, VA: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 1986).
  31. As shared by Dean Kriellaars at the Physical Literacy Roundtable.
  32. Seefeldt, Vern, and Haubenstricker,  John, “Patterns, Phases, or Stages,” in The Development of Movement Control and Coordination, eds. J.A.S. Kelso and J.E. Clark (John Wiley, 1982).
  33. Higgs, Colin et al., Developing Physical Literacy: A Guide for Parents of Children Ages 0 to 12, Canadian Sport for Life.
  34. Malina, “Movement Proficiency in Childhood…”
  35. Williams et al., “Motor Skill Performance and Physical Activity in Preschool Children.”
  36. Malina, “Physical Activity and Fitness…”
  37. Malina, “Movement Proficiency in Childhood…”
  38. Malina, “Movement Proficiency in Childhood…”
  39. Note from Robert Malina to the Aspen Institute. 
  40. Malina reminds us that “What is often overlooked is the important role of movement per se and movement proficiency of young children as a source of enjoyment and as a medium for learning and exploration, social interactions (siblings, peers, and parents) and environmental interactions (indoor and outdoor, man-made and natural).” Malina, “Movement Proficiency in Childhood…”
  41. Ability and motor skills can be achieved by intentional teaching and by access to opportunities for “new movement experiences,” which includes free play. Malina, “Movement Proficiency in Childhood…” and note from Robert Malina to the Aspen Institute.
  42. Malina, “Movement Proficiency in Childhood…”
  43. Collective impact is a strategy for large-scale social change that requires “broad cross-sector coordination.” Kania, John and Kramer, Mark, “Collective Impact,” Stanford Social Innovation Review, 36-41, Winter 2011.
  44. Health Literacy Basics: http://www.health.gov/communication/literacy/quickguide/factsbasic.htm.
  45. Middle school is not an end point, merely a milestone. Physical literacy is a lifelong journey and all individuals should continue to develop and maintain physical literacy throughout life.
  46. Spengler, Physical Literacy: A Global Environmental Scan; Almond, Len, “Physical Literacy and Fundamental Movement Skills: An Introductory critique,” Journal of Sport Science and Physical Education, 65: 2013.
  47. Faigenbaum, ACE Youth Fitness Manual.
  48. Farrey, Tom, Game On: The All-American Race to Make Champions of Our Children (New York: ESPN Books, 2008).
  49. “Increasing Physical Activity,” in White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity Report to the President, Let’s Move!; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Trends in leisure-time physical inactivity by age, sex, and race/ethnicity—United States, 1994-2004,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54(39):991-994, 2005; Neighbors, C., Marquez, D., and Marcus, B., “Leisure-time physical activity disparities among Hispanic subgroups in the United States,” American Journal of Public Health, 98(8): 1460-1464, 2008.
  50. “The Stats: Why All Kids Must Learn to Swim,” USA Swimming, http://www.usaswimming.org/; “Unintentional Drowning: Get the Facts,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/
  51. Gilchrist, Julie, and Parker, Erin M., “Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Fatal Unintentional Drowning Among Persons Aged ≤ 29 Years—United States, 1999-2010,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 63(19):421-426, May 16, 2014. 
  52. Moore, L.V. et al, “Availability of recreational resources in minority and low socioeconomic status areas,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34(1):16-22, 2008.
  53. Cohen, D.A., et al, “Contribution of public parks to physical activity,” American Journal of Public Health, 97(3):509-514, 2007. 
  54. Kristensen, A. et al, “Reducing Childhood Obesity Through U.S. Federal Policy,” Journal of Preventive Medicine, 47(5):604-612, November 2014.
  55. As shared by Janet Froetscher, executive director, Special Olympics at the Physical Literacy Roundtable.
  56. Note to Aspen Institute from Andrea Carey, Canadian Sport 4 Life. 
  57. Spengler, Physical Literacy: A Global Environmental Scan.
  58. Note to Aspen Institute from Andrea Carey, Canadian Sport 4 Life.
  59. Spengler, Physical Literacy: A Global Environmental Scan; Youth Sport Trust, http://www.youthsporttrust.org/.
  60. Spengler, Physical Literacy: A Global Environmental Scan; “Street football puts participants on new road,” Sport Wales, http://www.sportwales.org.uk/.
  61. Promotoras are lay members in the Hispanic community who have received training to provide basic health care and education to other community members. 
  62. “Daily Media Use Among Children and Teens Up Dramatically From Five Years Ago,” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, January 10, 2010, www.kff.org; “Media and Children,” American Academy of Pediatrics, www.aap.org.
  63. Huhman, M.E., et al., “Evaluation of a national physical activity intervention for children: VERB campaign, 2002-2004,” American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 32(1):38-43, 2007.
  64. Health and Academic Achievement, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, May 2014.
  65. Hillman, Charles et al., “The Effect of Acute Treadmill Walking on Cognitive Control and Academic Achievement in Preadolescent Children,” Neuroscience, 159:1044-1054, 2009.
  66. The 2014 United States Report Card on Physical Activity for Children & Youth, National Physical Activity Plan.
  67. Research suggests that there is an “important role for modeling among siblings.” Malina, Robert M., “Motor Development During Infancy and Early Childhood: Overview And Suggested Directions for Research,” International Journal Of Sport And Health Science, 2:50-66, 2004.
  68. Roetert, E.P. and Jefferies, S.C., “Embracing Physical Literacy,” Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 85(8): 38-40, 2014.
  69. espnW/Aspen Institute Project Play Survey of Parents on youth sports issues, Washington, DC: Aspen Institute Sports & Society Program, October 2014.
  70. PEP is short for the Carol M. White Physical Education Program, which provides grants to local education agencies and community-based organizations to initiate, expand, or enhance physical education programs, including after-school programs, for students in kindergarten through 12th grade.
  71. Framework for the Development of Sport & Physical Activity, Sport Wales, 2006.
  72. Spengler, Physical Literacy: A Global Environmental Scan; Rainer, Paul and Davies, Judith, “Physical Literacy in Wales – the Role of Physical Education,” Journal of Sport Science and Physical Education, 65:289-298, 2013.
  73. Spengler, Physical Literacy: A Global Environmental Scan.
  74. See www.canadiansportforlife.ca.
  75. Spengler, Physical Literacy: A Global Environmental Scan.
  76. Spengler, Physical Literacy: A Global Environmental Scan.
  77. “Sport Wales – Physical Literacy,” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R8PIXqp3JpA.
  78. Various versions of the PLAY tool are available online, www.physicalliteracy.ca/play.
  79. See www.physical-literacy.uk.org.
  80. Notes from interview with Dan Glynn, Stoughton (Wisc.) Department of Parks & Recreation; Glynn, Dan, Active Stoughton for Life: A Strategy for Lifelong Participation in Physical Activity, City of Stoughton, Department ofParks & Recreation, 2014.

FIGURE CITATIONS

Tools for an Active Life 
Inspired by Canadian Sport 4 Life.

Developing Physical Literacy:
Intervention points

Inspired by Seefeldt, Vern and Haubenstricker,  J, “Patterns, Phases, or Stages,”[32] and Higgs, Colin, Developing Physical Literacy.[33]

Four Phases of Motor Development
Inspired by Gallahue, David L., “Triangulated Hourglass: A Life Span Process/Product Model of Motor Development,” in Understanding Motor Development: Infants, Children, Adolescents, & Adults, eds. D.L. Gallahue, J.C. Ozmun, and J.D. Goodway (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2013).

REFERENCE MATERIALS

Physical Literacy: A Global Environmental Scan. Available online at AspenInstitute.org.

Sport for All, Play for Life: A Playbook to Get Every Kid in the Game. Available online at YouthReport.ProjectPlay.us.